Supplement Ingredients Backed by Research

Updated February 5, 2024
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Arabinogalactan

  • Kelly GS. "Larch arabinogalactan: clinical relevance of a novel immune-enhancing polysaccharide." Altern Med Rev. 1999 Apr;4(2):96-103.

Arginine

  • Hinckley KA, Fearn S, Howard BR, Henderson IW. "Nitric oxide donors as a treatment for grass induced acute laminitis in ponies." Equine Vet J. 1996 Jan;28(1):17-28.
  • Bryk J, Ochoa JB, Correia MI, et al. "Effect of citrulline and glutamine on nitric oxide production in RAW 264.7 cells in an arginine-depleted environment." J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2008 Jul-Aug;32(4):377-83.
  • Hayashi T, Juliet PA, Matsui-Hirai H, et al. "l-Citrulline and l-arginine supplementation retards the progression of high-cholesteral-diet-induced atherosclerosis in rabbits." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Sep 20;102(38):13681-6.

Ashwagandha

  • "Adaptogenic and Immunomodulatory Activity of Ashwagandha Root Extract: An Experimental Study in an Equine Model." Priyanka G, Anil Kumar B, Lakshman M, Manvitha V and Kala Kumar B. (2020). Front. Vet. Sci. 7:541112.
  • "A prospective, randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study of safety and efficacy of a high-concentration full-spectrum extract of Ashwagandha root in reducing stress and anxiety in adults." Chandrasekhar, K., Kapoor, J., & Anishetty, S. (2012). Indian journal of psychological medicine, 34(3), 255.
  • "Efficacy and Safety of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal) Root Extract in Improving Memory and Cognitive Functions." Choudhary, D., Bhattacharyya, S., & Bose, S. (2017). Journal of Dietary Supplements, 1-14. Chicago
  • "Efficacy and Safety of Ashwagandha ( Withania somnifera) Root Extract in Insomnia and Anxiety: A Double – blind, Randomized, Placebo-controlled study." Langade, D., Kanchi, S., Salve, J., Debnath, K., & Ambegaokar, D (2019). Cureus, 11(9), e5797.

AstaReal® Astaxanthin

  • Ito, Naoki et al. "The Protective Role of Astaxanthin for UV-Induced Skin Deterioration in Healthy People-A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial." Nutrients vol. 10,7 817. 25 Jun. 2018, doi:10.3390/nu10070817
  • Sato, Fumio, et al. "Effects of Daily Astaxanthin and L-Carnitine Supplementation for Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage in Training Thoroughbred Horses." Journal of Equine Veterinary Science, vol. 35, no. 10, Oct. 2015, pp. 836-842, doi.org/10.1016/j.jevs.2015.08.003. Accessed 21 Dec. 2023.

ASU

  • Kawcak CE, Frisbie DD, McIlwraith CW, et al. "Evaluation of avocado and soybean unsaponifiable extracts for treatment of horses with experimentally induced osteoarthritis." Am J Vet Res. 2007 Jun;68(6):598-604.

Betaine

  • Warren LK, Lawrence LM, Thompson KN. "The influence of betaine on untrained and trained horses exercising to fatigue." J Anim Sci. 1999 Mar:77(3):677-84.

Biotin

  • Zenker W, Josseck H, Geyer H. "Histological and physical assessment of poor hoof horn quality in Lipizzaner horses and a therapeutic trial with biotin and a placebo." Equine Vet J. 1995 May;27(3):183-91.
  • Josseck H, Zenker W, Geyer H. "Hoof horn abnormalities in Lipizzaner horses and the effect of dietary biotin on macroscopic aspects of hoof horn quality." Equine Vet J. 1995 May;27(3):175-82.
  • Geyer H, Schulze J. "The long-term influence of biotin supplementation on hoof horn quality in horses." Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd. 1994;136(4):137-49.
  • Buffa EA, Van Den Berg SS, Verstraete FJ, Swart NG. "Effect of dietary biotin supplement on equine hoof horn growth rate and hardness." Equine Vet J. 1992 Nov;24(6):472-4.
  • Comben N, Clark RJ, Sutherland DJ. "Clinical observations on the response of equine hoof defects to dietary supplementation with biotin." Vet Rec. 1984 Dec 22-20;115(25-26):642-5.

Bitter Melon Extract

  • Tsai, Tsung-Hsien et al. "Antioxidant, cell-protective, and anti-melanogenic activities of leaf extracts from wild bitter melon (Momordica charantia Linn. var. abbreviata Ser.) cultivars." Botanical studies vol. 55,1 (2014): 78. doi:10.1186/s40529-014-0078-y

Boron

  • R E Newnham. "Essentiality of boron for healthy bones and joints." Environ Health Perspect. 1994 Nov; 102(Suppl 7): 83–85.
  • Nielsen FH. "The justification for providing dietary guidance for the nutritional intake of boron." Biol Trace Elem Res. 1998 Winter;66(1-3):319-30.
  • Hunt CD. "The biochemical effects of physiologic amounts of dietary boron in animal nutrition models." Environ Health Perspect. 1994 Nov;102 Suppl 7:35-43.
  • Zofková I, Nemcikova P, Matucha P. "Trace elements and bone health." Clin Chem Lab Med. 2013 Aug;51(8):1555-61.
  • Pizzorno L. "Nothing Boring About Boron." Integr Med (Encinitas). 2015 Aug;14(4):35-48.
  • Nielsen FH. "Is boron nutritionally relevant?" Nutr Rev. 2008 Apr;66(4):183-91.
  • Devirian TA, Volpe SL. "The physiological effects of dietary boron." Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2003;43(2):219-31.
  • Jugdaohsingh R, Pedro L, Watson A, Powell JJ. "Silicon and boron differ in their localization and loading in bone." Bone Rep. 2014 Dec 4;1:9-15.

Boswellia

  • Siddiqui MZ. "Boswellia serrata, a potential anti-inflammatory agent: an overview." Indian J Pharm Sci. 2011 May;73(3):255-61.

Bromelain

  • Secor ER Jr, Shah SJ, Guernsey LA, et al. "Bromelain limits airway inflammation in an ovalbumin-induced murine model of established asthma." Altern Ther Health Med. 2012 Sep-Oct;18(5)9-17.

ButiPEARL™ Z EQ

  • Peng L, et al. "Butyrate Enhances the Intestinal Barrier by Facilitating Tight Junction Assembly via Activation of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase in Caco-2 Cell Monolayers." 2009. J. Nutr. 139: 1619-1625;
  • Ma X, et al. "Butyrate promotes the recovering of intestinal wound healing through its positive effect on the tight junctions." J Anim Sci. 2012. 90: 266–268.
  • Kotunia A, et al. "Effect of sodium butyrate on the small intestine development in neonatal piglets fed by artificial sow." J Physiol Pharmacol. 2004. 55: 59–68.
  • Guilloteau P, et al. "From the gut to the peripheral tissues: the multiple effects of butyrate." 2012 Nutr Res Rev. 23:366–384.
  • Zhang B, et al. "Zinc prevents Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium-induced loss of intestinal mucosal barrier function in broiler chickens." 2012. Avian Pathology. 41: 361–367.
  • Lansdown ABG, et al. "Zinc in wound healing: Theoretical, experimental, and clinical aspects." 2007. Wound Rep Reg 15:2–16.

L-Carnitine

  • Rivero JL, Sporleder HP, Quiroz-Rothe E, et al. "Oral l-carnitine combined with training promotes changes in skeletal muscle." Equine Vet J Suppl. 2002 Sep;(34):269-74.
  • Vineyard KR, Gordon ME, Graham-Thiers P, Jerina M. "Effects of daily administration of an amino-based supplement on muscle and exercise metabolism in working horses." J Eq Vet Sci. 2013 May;33(5):327.

Chaste Berry

  • Bradaric, Zrinjka & May, Anna & Gehlen, Heidrun. "Use of the chasteberry preparation Corticosal® for the treatment of pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction in horses." Pferdeheilkunde. 2013 Nov-Dec 29. 721-728.

Chondroitin Sulfate

  • Eddington ND, Jianping D, White N. "Evidence of the oral absorption of chondroitin sulfate as determined by total disaccharide content after oral and intravenous administration to horses." In Proceedings. 47th Annu Conv Am Assoc Equine Pract. 2001;47:326-8.
  • Montgomery M. "Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of the dietary supplement Actistatin on established glucosamine and chondroitin therapy in the horse." Intern J Appl Res Vet Med. 2011;9(2):100-18.
  • Rodgers MR. "Effects of oral glucosamine and chondroitin sulfates supplementation on frequency of intra-articular therapy of the horse tarsus." Intern J Appl Res Vet Med. 2006;4(2):155-62.

Citrulline

  • Hayashi T, Juliet PA, Matsui-Hirai H, et al. "l-Citrulline and l-arginine supplementation retards the progression of high-cholesteral-diet-induced atherosclerosis in rabbits." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Sep 20;102(38):13681-6.
  • Bryk J, Ochoa JB, Correia MI, et al. "Effect of citrulline and glutamine on nitric oxide production in RAW 264.7 cells in an arginine-depleted environment." J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2008 Jul-Aug;32(4):377-83.

CLOSTAT®

  • Comparison of CLOSTAT and Competitor Products by Antimicrobial Activities, Thermal Stability and Gastrointestinal Tolerance, TD-14-00114.
  • Burke, M. L., & Moore, S. A. (2017). "Bacillus subtilis Strain PB6 Demonstrates Growth Inhibition Toward Equine-Specific Bacterial Pathogens." Journal of Equine Veterinary Science, 58, 84-88. doi:10.1016/j.jevs.2017.08.016
  • Durairaj, V., & Clark, D. (n.d.). Necrotic Enteritis. Retrieved September 4, 2018, from http://www.thepoultrysite.com/articles/846/necrotic-enteritis/

Collagen

  • Bello AE1, Oesser S. "Collagen hydrolysate for the treatment of osteoarthritis and other joint disorders: a review of the literature." Curr Med Res Opin. 2006 Nov;22(11):2221-32.
  • Camacho-Luna P, Andrews FM, Keowen ML. "The effect of porcine hydrolysed collagen on gastric ulcer scores, gastric juice pH, gastrin and amino acid concentrations in horses." Equine Vet Educ. 2020 Nov.
  • Coenen M, Appelt K, Niemeyer A, Vervuert I. "Study of gelatin supplemented diet on amino acid homeostasis in the horse." Equine Vet J Suppl. 2006 Aug;(36):606-10.

Copper

  • Gee E, Davies M, Firth E, et al. "Osteochondrosis and copper: histology of articular cartilage from foals out of copper supplemented and non-supplemented dams." Vet J. Jan;173(1):109-17.

Curcumin & Turmeric

  • Clutterbuck AL, Mobasheri A, Shakibaei M, et al. "Interleukin-1beta-induced extracellular matrix degradation and glycosaminoglycan release is inhibited by curcumin in an explant model of cartilage inflammation." Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2009 Aug;1171:428-35.
  • Platel K, Srinivasan K. "Influence of dietary spices or their active principles on digestive enzymes of small intestinal mucosa in rats." Int J Food Sci Nutr. 1996 Jan;47(1):55-9.
  • Gilani AH, Shah AJ, Ghayur MN, Majeed K. "Pharmacological basis for the use of turmeric in gastrointestinal and respiratory disorders." Life Sci. 2005 May 13;76(26):3089-105.
  • St. Blanc M, Banse H, Retif M, et al. "Effects of Supplements Containing Turmeric and Devil's Claw on Equine Gastric Ulcer Scores and Gastric Juice pH." In: Proc of the 48th Annu AAEP Conv; pp 86-7.

Devil's Claw

  • St. Blanc M, Banse H, Retif M, et al. "Effects of Supplements Containing Turmeric and Devil's Claw on Equine Gastric Ulcer Scores and Gastric Juice pH." In: Proc of the 48th Annu AAEP Conv; pp 86-7.

DHA

  • Hall JA, Van Saun RJ, Tornquist SJ, et al. "Effect of type of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid supplement (corn oil or fish oil) on immune responses in healthy horses." J Vet Intern Med. 2004 Nov-Dec;18(6):880-6.
  • Nogradi N, Couetil LL, Messick J, et al. "Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation provides an additional benefit to a low-dust diet in the management of horses with chronic lower airway inflammatory disease." J Vet Intern Med 2015;29:299–306.

See also Omega 3s and Fish Oil.

DVEquine™ Postbiotic

  • Martinez R, Leatherwood J, Valigura H. "Responses to an intra-articular lipopolysaccharide challenge following dietary supplementation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product in young horses." J Eq Vet Sci. 2019 May;76:80.
  • Valigura H, Leatherwood J, Martinez R. "Dietary supplementation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product attenuates exercise-induced stress markers in young horses." J Eq Vet Sci. 2019 May;76:48

Digestive Enzymes

  • Platel K, Srinivasan K. "Influence of dietary spices or their active principles on digestive enzymes of small intestinal mucosa in rats." Int J Food Sci Nutr. 1996 Jan;47(1):55-9.

Echinacea

  • O'Neill W, McKee S, Clarke AF. "Immunological and haematinic consequences of feeding a standardized Echinacea (Echinacea angustifolia) extract to healthy horses." Equine Vet J. 2002 May;34(3):222-7.

EPA

  • Hall JA, Van Saun RJ, Tornquist SJ, et al. "Effect of type of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid supplement (corn oil or fish oil) on immune responses in healthy horses." J Vet Intern Med. 2004 Nov-Dec;18(6):880-6.

See also Omega 3s and Fish Oil.

Fenugreek

  • D. Goodwin, H.P.B. Davidson, P. Harris. "Selection and acceptance of flavours in concentrate diets for stabled horses." Applied Animal Behaviour Science , Volume 95 , Issue 3 , 223 - 232.
  • Jette L, Harvey L, Eugeni K, Levens N. "4-Hydroxyisoleucine: a plant-derived treatment for metabolic syndrome. Curr Opin Investig Drugs." 2009 Apr;10(4):353-8.
  • Platel K, Srinivasan K. "Influence of dietary spices or their active principles on digestive enzymes of small intestinal mucosa in rats." Int J Food Sci Nutr. 1996 Jan;47(1):55-9.

Fish Oil

  • Hall JA, Van Saun RJ, Tornquist SJ, et al. "Effect of type of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid supplement (corn oil or fish oil) on immune responses in healthy horses." J Vet Intern Med. 2004 Nov-Dec;18(6):880-6.

See also Omega 3s, DHA, and EPA.

Flax Seed

  • O'Neill W, McKee S, Clarke AF. "Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum) supplementation associated with reduced skin test lesional area in horses with Culicoides hypersensitivity." Can J Vet Res. Oct 2002;66(4):272-7.

See also Omega 3s, DHA, and EPA.

Fructooligosaccharides

  • Johnson ACB, Rossow HA. "Effects of two equine digestive aid supplements on hindgut health." Translational Animal Science. 2019 Jan;3(1):340-9.
  • Respondek F, Goachet AG, Julliand V. "Effects of dietary short-chain fructooligosaccharides on the intestinal microflora of horses subjected to a sudden change in diet." J Anim Sci. 2008 Feb;86(2):316-23.
  • Respondek F, Myers K, Smith TL, et al. "Dietary supplementation with short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides improves insulin sensitivity in obese horses." J Anim Sci. 2011 Jan;89(1):77-83.

Garlic

  • Pearson W. Boermans HJ, Bettger WJ, et al. "Association of maximum voluntary dietary intake of freeze-dried garlic with Heinz body anemia in horses." Am J Vet Res. 2005 Mar;66(3):457-65.

Ginger

  • Platel K, Srinivasan K. "Influence of dietary spices or their active principles on digestive enzymes of small intestinal mucosa in rats." Int J Food Sci Nutr. 1996 Jan;47(1):55-9.
  • Ghayur MN, Gilani AH. "Pharmacological basis for the medicinal use of ginger in gastrointestinal disorders." Dig Dis Sci. 2005 Oct;50(10):1889-97.

Glucosamine

  • Byron CR, Stewart MC, Stewart AA, Pondenis HC. "Effects of clinically relevant concentrations of glucosamine on equine chondrocytes and synoviocytes in vitro." Am J Vet Res. 2008 Sep;69(9):1129-34.
  • Byron CR, Benson BM, Stewart AA, Pondenis HC. "Effects of methylprednisolone acetate and glucosamine on proteoglycan production by equine chondrocytes in vitro." Am J Vet Res. 2008 Sep;69(9):1123-8.
  • Byron CR, Orth MW, Venta PJ, et al. "Influence of glucosamine on matrix metalloproteinase expression and activity in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated equine chondrocytes." Am J Vet Res. 2003 Jun;64(6):666-71.
  • Usha PR, Naidu MU. "Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of oral glucosamine, methylsulfonylmethane and their combination in osteoarthritis." Clin Drug Investig. 2004;24(6):353-63.
  • Tiku ML, Narla H, Jain M, Yalamanchili P. "Glucosamine prevents in vitro collagen degradation in chondrocytes by inhibiting advanced lipoxidation reactions and protein oxidation." Arthritis Res Ther. 2007;9(4):R76.
  • Rodgers MR. "Effects of oral glucosamine and chondroitin sulfates supplementation on frequency of intra-articular therapy of the horse tarsus." Intern J Appl Res Vet Med. 2006;4(2):155-62.
  • Montgomery M. "Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of the dietary supplement Actistatin on established glucosamine and chondroitin therapy in the horse." Intern J Appl Res Vet Med. 2011;9(2):100-18.
  • Leatherwood JL, Gehl KL, Coverdale JA, Arnold CE, Dabareiner RA, Walter KN, Lamprecht ED. "Influence of oral glucosamine supplementation in young horses challenged with intra-articular lipopolysaccharide." J Anim Sci. 2016 Aug;94(8):3294-3302.

Glutamine

  • Harris RC, Harris PA, Routledge NB, et al. "Plasma glutamine concentrations in the horse following feeding and oral glutamine supplementation." Equine Vet J Suppl. 2006 Aug;(36):637-42.
  • Roth E. "Nonnutritive effects of glutamine." J Nutr. 2008 Oct;138(10):2025S-2031S.

Glycine

  • Zhong Z, Wheeler MD, Li X, et al. "L-glycine: a novel antiinflammatory, immunomodulatory, and cytoprotective agent." Curr Opin Clin Nutri Metab Care. 2003 Mar;6(2):229-40.

Grape Seed Extract

  • Nassiri-Asl M, Hosseinzadeh H. "Review of the pharmacological effects of Vitis vinifera (grape) and its bioactive compounds." Phytother Res. 2009 Sep;23(9):1197-204.
  • Katiyar, Santosh K. "Grape seed proanthocyanidines and skin cancer prevention: Inhibition of oxidative stress and protection of immune system." Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, vol. 52, suppl no. 1, 2008, pp. S71-S76. doi:10.1002/mnfr.200700198
  • Kelen M, Tepe B. "Screening of antioxidative properties and total phenolig compounds of various extracts of three different seed of grape varieties (Vitis vinifera L.) from Turkish flora." Pak J Biol Sci. 2007 Feb 1;10(3):403-8.
  • Perde-Schrepler, Maria, et al. "Grape seed extract as photochemopreventive agent against UVB-induced skin cancer." Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology, vol. 118, 2013, pp. 16-21. doi:10.1002/mnfr.200700198

Green Tea Extract

  • Liu-Smith, Feng, and Frank L Meyskens. "Molecular mechanisms of flavonoids in melanin synthesis and the potential for the prevention and treatment of melanoma." Molecular nutrition & food research vol. 60,6 (2016): 1264-74. doi:10.1002/mnfr.201500822
  • Katiyar, Santosh K. "Skin photoprotection by green tea: antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects." Current drug targets. Immune, endocrine and metabolic disorders vol. 3,3 (2003): 234-42. doi:10.2174/1568008033340171

Hops

  • Harlow BE, Lawrence LM, Kagan IA, and Flythe MD. "Inhibition of fructan-fermenting equine faecal bacteria and Streptococcus bovis by hops (Humulus lupulus L.) β-acid." J Appl Microbiol. 2014 Aug;117(2):329–39.

Hyaluronic Acid

  • Bergin BJ, Pierce SW, Bramlage LR, Stromberg A. "Oral hyaluronan gel reduces post operature tarsocrural effusion in the yearling Thoroughbred." Equine Vet J. 2006 Jul:38(4):375-8.

Iron

  • Brommer H, Slet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan MM. "Iron deficiency in stabled Dutch warmblood foals." J Vet Intern med. 2001 Sep-Oct;15(5):482-5.
  • Mullaney TP, Brown CM. "Iron toxicity in neonatal foals." Equine Vet J. 1988 Mar;20(2):119-24.
  • Inoue Y, Matsui A, Asai Y, et al. "Effect of exercise on iron metabolism in horses." Biol Trace Elem Res. 2005 Oct;107(1):33-42.

Magnesium

  • Dodd JA, Doran G, Harris PA, et al. "Magnesium aspartate supplementation and reaction speed response in horses." J Eq Vet Sci. 2015 May;35(5):

MOS (Mannanoligosaccharides)

  • Johnson ACB, Rossow HA. "Effects of two equine digestive aid supplements on hindgut health." Translational Animal Science. 2019 Jan;3(1):340-9.
  • Koke K, Reddish JM, Share E, Cole K. "Effects of dietary yeast supplementation on serum IgG(T) concentrations in Quarter Horse mares." J Eq Vet Sci. 2013 May;33(5):396.

Lecithin

  • Ferrucci F, Zucca E, Croci C, et al. "Treatment of gastric ulceration in 10 standardbred racehorses with a pectin-lecithin complex." Vet Rec. 2003 May 31;152(22):679-81.
  • Venner M, Lauffs S, Deegan E. "Treatment of gastric lesions in horses with pectin-lecithin complex." Equine Vet J Suppl. 1999 Apr;(29):91-6.

Leucine

  • McKibbin LS, Cheng RSS. "Systemic d-phenylalanine and d-leucine for effective treatment of pain in the horse." Can Vet J. Feb 1982;23(2):39-40.

Licorice

  • Aly AM, Al-Alousi L, Salem HA. "Licorice: a possible anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcer drug." AAPS PharmSciTech. 2005 Sep 20;6(1):E74-82.
  • Shibata S. "A drug over the millennia: pharmacognozy, chemistry, and pharmacology of licorice." Yakugaku Zasshi. 2000 Oct;120(10):849-62.

Lysine

  • Graham-Thiers PM, Kronfeld, DS. "Amino acid supplementation improves muscle mass in aged and young horses." J Anim Sci. 2005 Dec;83(12):2783-8.
  • Graham PM, Ott EA, Brendemuhl JH, TenBroeck SH. "The effect of supplemental lysine and threonine on growth and development of yearling horses." J Anim Sci. 1994 Feb;72(2):380-6.

MSM

  • Maranon G, Munoz-escassi B, Manley W, et al. "The effect of methyl sulphonyl methane supplementation on biomarkers of oxidative stress in sport horses following jumping exercise." Acta Vet Scand. 2008 Nov 7;50:45.
  • Usha PR, Naidu MU. "Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of oral glucosamine, methylsulfonylmethane and their combination in osteoarthritis." Clin Drug Investig. 2004;24(6):353-63.
  • Barrager E, Veltmann JR Jr, Schauss Ag, Schiller RN. "A multicentered, open-label trial on the safety and efficacy of methylsulfonylmethane in the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis." J Altern Complement Med. 2002 Apr;8(2):167-73.

N-acetyl Cysteine (NAC)

  • Rotting AK, Freeman DE, Eurell JA, et al. "Effects of acetylcysteine and migration of resident eosinophils in an in vitro model of mucosal injury and restitution in equine right dorsal colon." Am J Vet Res. 2003 Oct;64(10):1205-12.

Oat Beta Glucan

  • Estrada A, Yun CH, Van Kessel A, et al. "Immunomodulatory activities of oat beta-glucan in vitro and in vivo." Microbiol Immunol.1997;41(12):991-8.

Octacosanol

  • Kim H, Parks S, Han DS, Park T. "Octacosanol supplementation increases running endurance time and improves biochamical parameters after exhaustion in trained rats." J Med Food. 2003 Winter;6(4):345-51.

Omega-3 Fatty Acids

  • Artemis P. Simopoulos, MD. "Omega-3 fatty acids in inflammation and autoimmune diseases." 2002 Dec;21(6):495-505.
  • De Moffarts B, Portier K, Kirschvink N, Coudert J, et al. "Effects of exercise and oral antioxidant supplementation enriched in (n-3) fatty acids on blood oxidant markers and erythrocytes membrane fluidity in horses." Vet J. 2007 July;174(1):113-21.
  • Hansen RA, Savage CJ, Reidlinger K, et al. "Effects of dietary flaxseed oil supplementation on equine plasma fatty acid concentrations and whole blood platelet aggregation." J Vet Intern Med. 2002 Jul-Aug;16(4):457-63.
  • Hess, Tanja & Ross-Jones, Trinette. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in horses. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia (2014). 43. 677-683. 10.1590/S1516-35982014001200008.
  • King SS, Abughazaleh AA, Webel SK, Jones KL. "Circulating fatty acid profiles in response to three levels of dietary omega-3 fatty acid supplemetation in horses." J Anim Sci. 2008 May;86(5):1114-23.
  • Koke K, Reddish JM, Share E, Cole K. "Effects of dietary yeast supplementation on serum IgG(T) concentrations in Quarter Horse mares." J Eq Vet Sci. 2013 May;33(5):396.
  • Manhart DR, Scott BD, Gibbs PG, et al. Markers of inflammation in arthritic horses fed omega-3 fatty acids. Prof AnimSci. 2009;25:155-60.
  • Neelley KA and Herthel DJ. "Essential fatty acid supplementation as a preventative for carbohydrate overload-induced laminitis," in Proceedings. 43rd Annu Conv Am Assoc Equine Pract 1997;43:367-9.
  • Nogradi M, Couetil LL, Messick J, et al. "Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation provides an additional benefit to a low-dust diet in the management of horses with chronic lower airway inflammatory disease." J Vet Intern Med. 2015 Jan;29(1):299-306.
  • Vineyard KR, Warren LK, Kivipelto J. "Effect of dietary omega-3 fatty acid source on plasma and red blood cell membrane composition and immune function in yearling horses." J Anim Sci. 2010 Jan;88(1):248-57.

See also DHA, EPA, Flax Seed, and Fish Oil.

Pectin

  • Ferrucci F, Zucca E, Croci C, et al. "Treatment of gastric ulceration in 10 standardbred racehorses with a pectin-lecithin complex." Vet Rec. 2003 May 31;152(22):679-81.
  • Venner M, Lauffs S, Deegan E. "Treatment of gastric lesions in horses with pectin-lecithin complex." Equine Vet J Suppl. 1999 Apr;(29):91-6.

Phenylalanine

  • McKibbin LS, Cheng RSS. "Systemic d-phenylalanine and d-leucine for effective treatment of pain in the horse." Can Vet J. Feb 1982;23(2):39-40.

Prebiotics

  • Julliand V. "Pre-and probiotics: potentials for equine practice." In Proceedings. 3rd European Equine Nutrition & Health Congress 2006.

Probiotics

  • Julliand V. "Pre-and probiotics: potentials for equine practice." In Proceedings. 3rd European Equine Nutrition & Health Congress 2006.

Psyllium

  • Hotwagner K, Iben C. "Evacuation of sand from the equine intestine with mineral oil, with and without psyllium." J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl). 2008 Feb;92(1):86-91.
  • Landes AD, Hassel DM, Funk JD, Hill A. "Fecal sand clearance is enhanced with a product combining probiotics, prebiotics, and psyllium in clinically normal horses." In Proceedings. 53rd Annu Conv Am Assoc Equine Pract 2007:53:527-8
  • Hotwagner K, Iben C. "Evacuation of sand from the equine intestine with mineral oil, with and without psyllium." J Anim Physiol Anim Nutri (Berl). 2008 Feb;92(1):86-91.

Resveratrol

  • Kohlhaas KS, Zambito JL, Spooner HS. "Effects of oral resveratrol supplementation on insulin sensitivity and reproductive cyclicity in obese mares on pasture." J Eq Vet Sci. 2013 May;33(5):370-1.
  • Watts AE, Dabareiner R, Marsh C, et al. "A randomized, controlled trial of the effects of resveratrol administration in performance horses with lameness localized to the distal tarsal joints." J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2016 Sep 15;249(6):650-9.
  • Ememe M, Abdullahi US, Sackey AKB. "Modulatory effects of resveratrol supplementation on inflammatory markers in ageing and lame horses." International Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances. 2015 Oct;7(4):67-72.
  • Martin LM, Johnson PJ, Amorim JR, DeClue AE. "Effects of orally administered resveratrol on TNF, IL-1B, leukocyte phagocytic activity, and oxidative burst function in horses: A prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study." Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Feb 20;21(4):1453.

Rhodiola rosea

  • "Stress management and the role of Rhodiola rosea: a review." Int J Psychiatry Clin Pract . 2018 Nov;22(4):242-252. Anghelescu I-G, Edwards D, Seifritz E, Kasper S.

Ribose

  • Kavazis AN, Sobota JS, Kivipelto J, et al. "Ribose supplementation in maximally exercising Thoroughbreds." Equine Vet J Suppl. 2002 Sep;(34):191-6.
  • Kavazis AN, Kivipelto J, Choe HS, et al. "Effects of ribose supplementation on selected metabolic measurements and performance in maximally exercising Thoroughbreds." J Anim Sci. 2004 Feb; 82(2):619-25.

Schisandra chinensis

  • "Schisandra chinensis and its phytotherapeutical applications." Ceska Slov Farm. Summer 2019;68(3):95-118. Rybnikář M, Šmejkal K, Žemlička M.

Saccharomyces cerevisiae

  • Medina B, Girard ID, Jacotot E, Julliand V. "Effect of a preparation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on microbial profiles and fermentation patterns in the large intestine of horses fed a high fiber or a high starch diet." J Anim Sci. 2002 Oct;80(10):2600-9. doi: 10.2527/2002.80102600x. PMID: 12413082.
  • Jouany JP, Medina B, Bertin G, Julliand V. "Effect of live yeast culture supplementation on hindgut microbial communities and their polysaccharidase and glycoside hydrolase activities in horses fed a high-fiber or high-starch diet." J Anim Sci. 2009 Sep;87(9):2844-52. doi: 10.2527/jas.2008-1602. Epub 2009 May 22. PMID: 19465499.

Sea Buckthorn

  • Huff NK, Auer AD, Garza Jr. F, et al. "Effect of Sea Buckthorn Berries and Pulp in a Liquid Emulsion on Gastric Ulcer Scores and Gastric Juice pH in Horses." J Vet Intern Med 2012;26:1186-91.

Selenium

  • Richardson SM, Siciliano PD, Engle TE, et al. "Effect of selenium supplementation and source on the selenium status of horses." J Anim Sci. 2006 Jul;84(7):1742-8.
  • Calamari L, Ferrari A, Bertin G. "Effect of selenium source and dose on selenium status of mature horses." J Anim Sci. 2009 Jan;87(1):167-78.

Siberian Ginseng

  • "Deconstructing an adaptogen: Eleutherococcus senticosus." Holist Nurs Pract . Jul-Aug 2008;22(4):220-4. Bleakney TL.

Silica

  • O'Connor CI, Nielsen BD, Woodward AD, et al. "Mineral balance in horses fed two supplemental silicon sources." J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl). 2008 Apr;92(2):173-81.
  • Lang KJ, Nielsen BD, Waite KL, et al. "Increased plasma silicon concentrations and altered bone resorption in response to sodium zeolite a supplementation in yearling horses." J Eq Vet Sci. 2001 Nov;21(11):550-5.

Spirulina

  • Kaur, Kawalpreet, and Saranjeet Kaur. "SPIRULINA – A WONDER NUTRACEUTICAL AGAINST CANCER: A REVIEW." PLANT ARCHIVES, vol. 21, no. No 1, 2021, pp. 1333-1338. doi:10.51470/PLANTARCHIVES.2021.v21.no1.177

Tart Cherry

  • Ducharme NG, Fortier LA, Kraus MS, et al. "Effect of a tart cherry juice blend on exercise-induced muscle damage in horses." Am J Vet Res. 2009 Jun;70(6):758-63.

Threonine

  • Graham-Thiers PM, Kronfeld, DS. "Amino acid supplemention improves muscle mass in aged and young horses." J Anim Sci. 2005 Dec;83(12):2783-8.
  • Graham PM, Ott EA, Brendemuhl JH, TenBroeck SH. "The effect of supplemental lysine and threonine on growth and development of yearling horses." J Anim Sci. 1994 Feb;72(2):380-6.

L-Tryptophan

  • Noble GK, Brockwell YM, Munn KJ, et al. "Effects of a commercial dose of l-tryptophan on plasma tryptophan concentrations and behaviour in horses." Equine Vet J. 2008 Jan;40(1):51-6.

Vitamin C

  • Deaton CM, Marlin DJ, Smith NC, et al. "Pulmonary bioavailability of ascorbic acid in an ascorbate-synthesising species, the horse." Free Radic Res. 2003 Apr:37(4):461-7.
  • Deaton CM, Marlin DJ, Smith NC, et al. "Pulmonary epithelial lining and plasma ascorbic acid concentrations in horses affected by recurrent airway obstruction." Am J Vet Res. 2004 Jan;65(1):80-7.
  • Kirschvink N, Fievez L, Bougnet V, et al. "Effect of nutritional antioxidant supplementation on systemic and pulmonary antioxidant status, airway inflammation and lung function in heaves-affected horses." Equine Vet J. 2002 Nov;34(7):705-12.
  • Youssef MA, El-khodery SA, Ibrahim HM. "Effect of selenium and vitamin C on clinical outcomes, trace element status, and antioxidant enzyme activity in horses with acute and chronic lower airway disease." A randomized clinical trial. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2013 June;152(3):333-42.
  • Ralston SL, Nockels CF, Squires EL. "Differences in diagnostic test results and hematologic data between aged and young horses." Am J Vet Res. 1988 Aug;49(8):1387-92.

Vitex agnus castus

  • Beech J, Donaldson MT, Lindborg S. "Comparison of Vitex agnus castus extract and pergolide in treatment of equine Cushing's syndrome." In Proceedings. 48th Annu Conv Am Assoc Equine Pract 2002;48:175-7.

Yeast

  • Jouany JP, Gobert J, Medina B, et al. "Effect of a live yeast culture supplementation on apparent digestibility and rate of passage in horses fed a high-fiber or high-starch diet." J Anim Sci. 2008 Feb;86(2):339-47.

SmartPak strongly encourages you to consult your veterinarian regarding specific questions about your horse's health. This information is not intended to diagnose or treat any disease, and is purely educational.