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Colic in horses is abdominal pain that may be caused by a number of different problems. It is a common and potentially fatal condition that horse owners should try to prevent through proven management strategies. There are several recognized types of colic, including:
Because there are many causes of colic, there are many supplements that may help reduce a horse’s risk. If you live in a sandy area, Psyllium is recommended to help move sand out of the gastrointestinal tract so it does not accumulate. Digestive supplements that provide prebiotics, probiotics, yeast and/or digestive enzymes may help maintain regularity of the digestive system. Hindgut buffers are excellent choices for horses that colic from starch overload, either from diets high in grain, introduction to fresh grass, or sudden change in diet. To prevent impaction colic, encourage the horse to drink more water by feeding salt or a complete electrolyte supplement. Daily dewormers may also prevent colic by protecting the horse’s gastrointestinal tract from the inflammation and scarring caused by the migration and encysting of strongyles.
Your veterinarian will perform a complete physical examination that may include palpating the abdomen through the rectum and passing a tube into the stomach. Bloodwork, a “belly tap,” x-ray (radiography) or ultrasound may also be performed to determine the cause and severity.
Banamine® (flunixin meglumine) is commonly used to relieve the pain of colic. In mild cases, this may be all the horse needs. However, some horses may require mineral oil, fluids or other prescription medications such as Buscopan or xylazine. Severe colics may require surgery.
Make any changes to the diet gradually. This includes not only switching grains, but also switching hays and introducing horses to new or different pastures.
Because increased stall time is a risk factor for colic, keep your horse turned out as much as possible.
Both increases and decreases in activity can lead to colic, so make changes in your horse’s exercise routine gradually and try to follow a schedule of regular, controlled exercise.
Parasite control, dental care, and sound nutrition will reduce your horse’s risk of developing colic.